Know about the acts of environmental conservation
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Know about these acts for environmental conservation



Every country has an environment protection act passed and India is no exception to it. Let us get to know about some of the acts of environmental conservation. The act is passed to ensure the protection of the flora and fauna of the country and to have a sustainability of the environment. The word environment under the constitution includes “a) Water, air and land b) The inter-relationship which exists among and between, i) water, air, land, and ii) human beings, other living creatures, plants, microorganisms and property. There were more than 200 acts pre-independence and today there are six fundamental acts governing the principles of environment. The major six laws include:

(i)  Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

(ii)  Forests (Conservation) Act, 1980

(iii) Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

(iv) The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977

(v) Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

(vi) Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981


The Rule book of Central Government

The acts are passed by the Indian constitution and therefore the central government has more powers in formulating and regulating these acts more than the State Governments. In accordance to the same, the Central government has every right to take measures that deems necessary in the welfare of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and in the prevention of abating environmental pollution. It is also within the powers of the Central Government to appoint or issue directions to the State Government in implementing the above mentioned acts with much rigidity and diligence.

Further, the person appointed by the Central Government have in their vested powers to enter at all reasonable times to any place for the purpose of performing any of the functions entrusted on him, If the orders passed are duly complied with, or to examine or test any equipment, industrial plant, or any other material/object that was issued for the purpose of abating/controlling the pollution is rightly used or not.


What the act says: A brief

(i) The main objective of the wildlife protection act was to restrict and prohibit the illegal hunting and trapping wildlife. The act ensures to reinstate the life of endangered and threatened species and provide them proper rehabilitation. The set up of sanctuaries and national parks are taken up where they are deemed to protect the bio diversity and biospheres reserves of the country.

(ii) This act covers every type of forests which includes reserve forests, protected forests or any forested land irrespective of its ownership. The Act has made ample provisions to check deforestation and encourage afforestation of non-forest areas. This act was amended in 1992 and further made provisions in favour of the Central Government to control and check on the preservation of the natural environment. Cultivation, mining were also brought under the central’s vigil and stringent rules are passed against violators of the act.

(iii) The salient of this act include the maintenance and restoration of the quality of all types of surface and ground water and to prevent water pollution in any means. Again the central government has the upper hand which has set up a Pollution Control Board(PCB) which advises in matters related to the prevention and control of water pollution.

(iv) The main functionality of this act empowers the Central Water Board to collect cess on water consumed and utilised by persons carrying on certain scheduled industries and by local authorities responsible for supplying water. Also this act was amended in the year 1991incoporating more rules with a target to ensure quality drinking water for all.

(v) The main focus is towards the prevention and control of air pollution and to reinstate the quality of air, amidst the raising amount of air pollution. There are various rules and clauses in this act and measures are laid out to prevent air pollution at any cost, which they do it with the help of Sate appointed committees or boards.

(vi) This act includes the overall protection of the environment. It was enacted on November 19, 1986, where the protection and the improvement of the environs were ensured and to prevent hazards to human beings, living creatures and property. The act consists of 26 sections which comprises four chapters and includes the whole country.



The Central Government, in its best makes every effort to protect and safeguard the environment. It is not only the Government’s duty, but also every citizen is duty bound to ensure the goodness of surrounding to give promising future to our children tomorrow. Therefore, let us know about the environmental conservation and take a pledge in trying to limit our actions that pose threats to flora/fauna and make it a lifestyle habit to live along with nature.

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